Eamcet 2014 Chemistry Syllabus | Eamcet 2014 Chemistry Syllabus

Eamcet 2014 Chemistry Syllabus | Eamcet 2014 Chemistry Syllabus

Eamcet-2014

Eamcet 2014 Chemistry Syllabus Eamcet 2014 Chemistry Syllabus Eamcet 2014 Chemistry Syllabus Eamcet 2014 Chemistry Syllabus Eamcet 2014 Chemistry Syllabus Eamcet 2014 Chemistry Syllabus

Eamcet 2014 Chemistry Syllabus :

 

I. ATOMIC STRUCTURE:

Characteristics of electron, proton and neutron. Rutherford model of an atom. Nature of electromagnetic radiation. Planck’s
quantum theory. Explanation of photo electric effect. Dual behavior of electromagnetic radiation. Features of atomic spectra – Emission and absorption spectra. Characteristics of hydrogen spectrum. Bohr’s theory of the structure of atom – Postulates.  Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom, Energy of an electron.   Bohr’s  explanation  of  spectral  lines.   Failure  of  Bohr’s  theory.  Wave-particle  nature  of  electron.   De  Broglie’s  hypothesis,   Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Important features of the quantum mechanical model of an atom – Meaning and significance of wave function. Quantum numbers, concept of orbitals, definition of atomic orbital in terms of quantum numbers – shapes of s, p and d orbitals, Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity. Electronic configuration of atoms. Explanation of stabilityof half filled and completely filled orbitals.

II. CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS  AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES:

Concept of grouping the elements in accordance to  their properties – Mendeleef’s Periodic Table. Periodic law – Mendeleef’s classification of elements. Significance of atomic number and electronic configuration as the basis for periodic classification. Classification of elements into s, p, d, f blocks and their main characteristics. Periodic trends in physical and chemical properties of elements: Atomic radii, Ionic radii,Inert gas radii, Ionization energy, Electron gain  energy, Electronegativity and Valency. Variation of oxidation states, Electropositivity – Metallic and Non-metallic nature, Nature of Oxides, Diagonal relationship. Variation of atomic radii in inner transition elements.

III. CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE:

Kossel -Lewis approach to chemical bonding. Factorsfavorable for the formation of ionic bond, energy changes in ionic bond formation. Crystal lattice energy – calculation of lattice energy –Born – Haber cycle. Crystal structure of sodium chloride  and  Caesium  chloride,  Coordination  number.  Properties  of  ionic  compounds.  Covalent  bond  -  VSEPR  theory  –  Lewis  representation  of covalent  compounds,  Formal  charge,  geometry  of  simple  molecules.   The  valence  bond  approach  for  the  formation  of  covalent  bonds.  Directional properties of covalent bond. Properties of covalentbond. Hybridization – different types of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals. Shapes of simple covalent molecules. Definition of coordinate covalent bond with examples. Molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules. Symmetry and energy of sigma and pi bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals. Molecular orbital energy diagram of H2, N2and O2. Concept of hydrogen bond and its types with examples. Effect of hydrogen bondingon properties of compounds.

IV. STOICHIOMETRY:

Laws of chemical combination – Principles and examples. Molar mass, concept of equivalent weight with examples. Percentage
composition  of  compounds  and  calculation  of  empirical  and  molecular  formulae  of  compounds.   Chemical  reactions  and  Stoichiometric  equations. Oxidation number concept. Balancing of redox reactions by ion electron method and oxidation number method. Types of redox reactions. Applications of redox reactions in titrimetric quantitative analysis. Redox reactions and electrode processes.

V.  STATES  OF  MATTER:  GASES  AND  LIQUIDS:

Graham’s  law  of  diffusion,  Dalton’s  law  of  partial  pressures,  Avogadro’s  law.   Ideal  behavior, empirical derivation of gas equation, ideal gas equation. Kinetic molecular theory of gases. Kinetic gas equation (No derivation) – deduction of gas laws. Distribution of molecular velocities and types of molecular velocities – Average, Root Mean Square andMost Probable Velocity. Behavior of real gases, deviation from ideal behaviour, compressibility factor versus pressure diagrams of real gases. Conditions for liquification of gases, critical temperature. Liquid  state  –  Properties  of  liquids  in  terms  of  intermolecular  attractions.  Vapour  pressure,  viscosity  and  surface  tension  (qualitative  idea  only,  no mathematical derivation)

VI. SOLUTIONS:

Classification of solutions, molarity, normality, molality and mole fraction. Dilute solutions, vapor pressure, Raoult’s law, Limitations of Raoult’s law. Colligative properties – (i) Relativelowering of vapor pressure (ii) Elevation of B.P (iii) Depression in freezing point and their relation to molar mass. Osmosis and osmotic pressure – theory of dilute solutions. Determination of molar mass using colligative properties: Ostwald’s dynamic method, Cottrell’s method, Rast’s method and Berkeley Hartley’s method. Abnormal molecular mass.

VII.  ELECTRO  CHEMISTRY:

Conductance  in  electrolytic  solutions.   Specific,  Equivalent  and  Molar  conductance  -  variation  of  conductance  with
concentration,  Kohlrausch’s  law  and  its  application to  calculation  of  equivalent  conductance  of  weak  electrolytes.  Electrolytes  and  non-electrolytes, redox  reactions.   Electrolysis.   Some  typical  examples  of  electrolysis  viz;   Fused  Sodium  hydroxide,  Fused  sodium  chloride,  Brine  solution,  Fused Magnesium chloride. Faraday’s laws of electrolysisand applications. Galvanic and voltaic cells. Representation and notation of electrochemical cells with  and  without  salt  bridge.   Standard  hydrogen  electrode,  electrode  potentials,  electrochemical  series.   EMF  of  the  cell,  Nernst  equation  and  its application to calculate EMF of electrochemical cells. Primary cell – dry cell / Lechlanche cell. Secondary cells – Fuel cells: Hydrogen – Oxygen fuel cell and Hydrocarbon – Oxygen fuel cell. Corrosion: mechanism, factors to promote corrosion and prevention of corrosion, passivity. Lead accumulator.

VIII. SOLID STATE:

Classification of solids based on different binding forces as molecular, ionic, covalent, and metallic solids. Elementary treatment of
metallic bond. Metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids. Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. Seven crystal systems, Bravais lattices. Bragg’s equation, X-ray study of crystal structure, Bragg’s method. Calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per cubic unit cell. Point defects – Schottky and Frenkel defects. Electrical and magnetic properties.

IX.  CHEMICAL  KINETICS:

Concepts  of  reaction  rate,  factors  affecting  reaction  rates.   Rate  law,  Units  of  rate  constant.   Order and  molecularity.
Methods of determination of order of a reaction. Integrated rate equations and half lives for zero and first order reaction Collision theory of reaction rates (elementary ideas). Concept of activation energy.  Equilibrium:  Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, Law of mass action, equilibrium constant. Factors  affecting equilibrium. Relation between Kp and Kc Le Chatelier’s principle, application to industrial synthesis  of  (i)  Ammonia  (ii)  Sulphur  trioxide.  Acids  and  Bases:  Lowry-Bronsted  acid  base  theory.   Lewis  theory,  limitation  of  Lewis  theory,  Ionic equilibrium. Ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization. Ionicproduct of water. Concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), hydrolysis constant, buffer solutions.Solubility product and common ion effect withillustrative examples.

X. THERMODYNAMICS:

Concept of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics – Internal energy and Enthalpy. Heat capacity and Specific heat, Exothermic and Endothermic reactions, measurement of ∆E  and  ∆H,  Enthalpy  of  bond  dissociation, combustion,  neutralization, formation,  atomization,  sublimation,  phase  transition,  ionization  and  dilution. Thermochemical  equations.   Hess’s  law  of  constant  heat  summation.  Driving  force  for  a  spontaneous  process.   Thermodynamic  representation  of criteria of spontaneity in terms of entropy, entropy as a state function. Gibbs free energy, Gibbs free energy change for spontaneous, non spontaneous and equilibrium processes.

XI. SURFACE CHEMISTRY:

Adsorption: Physical and chemical adsorption, adsorption of gases on solids, factors affecting it – pressure (Langmuir and Freundlich  Isotherms)  and  temperature.  Catalysis  -  types  of  catalysis,  autocatalysis  Colloidal  state:  colloidal  solutions,  classification  of  colloidal solutions, protective colloids and Gold number, Properties of colloids – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement. Coagulation. Emulsions, classification of emulsions, micelles, cleansing action of soap.

XII.   HYDROGEN  AND  ITS  COMPOUNDS:

Position  of  hydrogen  in  periodic  table.   Occurrence,  isotopes  of  hydrogen.  Hydrogen  -  Preparation, properties and uses including as a fuel. Reactionsof hydrogen leading to ionic, molecular and non -  stoichiometric hydrides. Physical and Chemical
properties of water and heavy water. Hardness of water and its removal Hydrogen peroxide – methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties -oxidation, reduction, decomposition, disproportionation and addition reactions. Detection, structureand uses of Hydrogen Peroxide.

XIII. ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, Anomalous properties of the first element in each group. Diagonal relationship. Trends in properties like ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii, reactivity with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and
water, uses of alkali and alkaline earth metals.Preparation, properties and uses of sodium hydroxide,  salts of oxo acids, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium chloride. Preparationand uses of Calcium oxide, Calcium carbonate and Calcium sulphate. Biological importance ofNa, K, Mg and Ca.

XIV.  p-BLOCK  ELEMENTS:  GROUP  13  ELEMENTS:  (IIIA  GROUP  ELEMENTS):

General  introduction,   electronic  configuration,  occurrence. Variation  of  properties  and  oxidation  states, trends  in chemical  reactivity. Anomalous  properties  of first  element  of  the  group.   Boron-  Physical  and chemical  properties  and  uses  of  boron.  Borax,  boric acid  and  boron  hydrides.  Preparation,  structure  and  properties  of  diborane.  Aluminum:  uses, reactions with acids and alkalis. Potash alum.

XV. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 14 ELEMENTS: (IVA GROUP ELEMENTS):

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties and oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity. Anomalous behavior of first element. Carbon – catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties and uses. Similarities between carbon and silicon, uses of oxides of carbon. Important compounds of Silicon – Silicon dioxide, uses
of Silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites (Elementary Ideas). Manufacture and uses of Producer gas and Water gas.

XVI. p- BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP 15 ELEMENTS (VA GROUPELEMENTS):

Occurrence – physical states of nitrogen and phosphorous, allotropy, catenation, electronic configuration, oxidation states. General characteristics and structure of hydrides. General characteristics of oxides and halides.Oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorous. Preparation and uses of nitric acid and Ammonia. Super phosphateof lime.

XVII.  p-  BLOCK  ELEMENTS:  GROUP  16  ELEMENTS  (VIA  GROUP  ELEMENTS):

Occurrence,  electronic  configuration,  oxidation  states,  physical states of oxygen and sulphur, their structure and allotropy. General characteristics of hydrides, oxides and halides. Structural aspects of oxy acids of chalcogens. Preparation, properties and uses of ozone and sodium thiosulphate. Industrial process for manufacture of sulphuric acid.

XVIII.  P-  BLOCK  ELEMENTS:  GROUP  17  ELEMENTS  (VIIA  GROUP  ELEMENTS):

Occurrence,  electronic  configuration  and  oxidation  states. Physical states of halogens. Ionization Potential, Electro negativity, Electron affinity, bond energies, chemical reactivity, oxidizing power of fluorine and chlorine. Structural aspects of oxy acids of chlorine. Preparation, properties and uses of fluorine, chlorine and bleaching powder. Structures of Inter halogen compounds.

XIX.   GROUP  18  ELEMENTS:  (ZERO  GROUP  ELEMENTS):

General  introduction,  electronic  configuration,  occurrence  and  isolation.  Trends  in physical and chemical properties and uses. Structures of Xenon oxides and halides.

XX.  TRANSITION  ELEMENTS:

General  introduction,  electronic  configuration,  occurrence  and characteristics  of  transition metals. General  trends  in
properties of first row transition elements – metallic character, ionization energy, variable oxidation states, atomic and ionic radii, color, catalytic property, magnetic property, interstitial compounds and alloyformation. Lanthanides:  Electronic configuration, variable oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanide contraction.  Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, Werner’s theory of coordination compounds, shapes of coordination compounds – Valence bond theory, IUPAC nomenclature of mono nuclear coordination compounds, bonding, isomerism, EAN rule, importance of coordination compounds in qualitativeanalysis, extraction of metals and biological systems (chromo proteins, haemoglobin, chlorophyll: structures only).

XXI.   GENERAL  PRINCIPLES  OF  METALLURGY:

Principles  and  methods  of  extraction  -  concentration,  reduction  by  chemical  and  Electrolytic methods and refining. Occurrence and principles of extraction of Copper, Zinc, Iron and Silver. Molten electrolysis processes of Aluminium, Magnesium and Sodium.

XXII. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY:

Definition of terms, types of Pollution, Air, Waterand Soil pollution. Oxides of carbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of  nitrogen  and  sulphur,  chloro  fluoro  carbons.   Chemical  reactions  in  atmosphere,  smogs,  major  atmospheric  pollutants,  acid  rain.  Ozone  and  its reactions,  effects  of  depletion  of  ozone  layer.  Greenhouse  effect  and  global  warming.   Pollution  due  to  industrial  wastes.  Green  chemistry  as  an alternative tool for reducing pollution with two examples.

XXIII. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY:

Introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic compounds. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of covalent bond. Types of regents  –  electrophiles,  nucleophiles  and  free  radicals  with  examples.  Reactive  intermediates.  Types  of  organic  reactions  -  substitution,  addition,
elimination and rearrangement reactions with examples. Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.

XXIV. HYDROCARBONS:

Classification of hydrocarbons. Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism. Methods of preparationof ethane. Conformations of ethane. Physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, Combustion and Pyrolysis of ethane.  Cycloalkanes :   Preparation  and  properties  of  cyclohexane.  Alkenes -  Nomenclature,  structure  of  ethene,  geometrical  isomerism  and  physical  properties  of geometrical isomers. Ethylene: Methods of preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions -  addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), Ozonolysis and oxidation. Mechanism of electrophilic addition.

XXV. ALKYNES & AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS:

Nomenclature, structure of triple bond. Acetylene -Methods of preparation, Physical properties and  chemical  reactions:  acidic  character  of  acetylene,  addition   reaction  of  -   hydrogen,  halogens,  hydrogen  halides  and  water.  Aromatic hydrocarbons:   Introduction,  IUPAC   nomenclature;  Benzene:  resonance  and  aromaticity,  Chemical    properties:  Mechanism  of  electrophilic
substitution – Nitration, Sulphonation, Halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and Acylation. Directive influence of functional group in mono substituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity of aromatic compound.

XXVI.  STEREO  CHEMISTRY:

Optical  activity-discovery,  determination  using  a  polarimeter,  specific  rotation.   Asymmetric  carbon,  elements  of
symmetry. Chirality – Chiral objects, Chiral molecules. Compounds containing one chiral centre, enantiomers, Fischer projections and Configuration. D,L-  and  R,S-  nomenclature,  racemic  forms,  racemisation  and  resolution.   Compounds  containing  two  chiral  centers,  diastereomers,  meso  form.  Importance of Stereochemistry.

XXVII.HALOALKANES & HALOARENES:  Haloalkanes:

Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, Preparation, physical and chemical properties of ethyl chloride  and  chloroform.  Mechanism  of   SN1,  and  SN2 reactions.  Haloarenes:  Nature  of  C-X  bond,  Preparation  and  Substitution  reactions  of chlorobenzene (directive influence of halogen for mono substituted compounds only).

XXVIII.  ALCOHOLS  ,  PHENOLS  AND  ETHERS:

Alcohols:  Nomenclature,   methods  of  preparation,  physical  and    chemical  properties  of   ethyl alcohol. Mechanism of dehydration. Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Uses of methanol and ethanol. Phenols:  Nomenclature,
methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties of phenol, acidic nature of phenol. Electrophilic substitution reactions and uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical andchemical properties and uses of diethyl ether.

XXIX. ALDEHYDES AND KETONES:

Nomenclature, and nature of carbonyl group. Methods of preparation, physical and chemical propertiesand
uses of acetaldehyde and acetone. Mechanism of nucleophilic addition. Aldol and crossed aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction.

XXX. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS:

Nomenclature and acidity of carboxylic acids. Methods of preparation, Physical and chemical properties and uses of
acetic acid.

XXXI.   ORGANIC  COMPOUNDS  CONTAINING  NITROGEN:

Nitrobenzene:   Preparation,  properties  and  uses.  Amines:   Nomenclature  and classification of amines. Structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties and usesof Aniline. Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance of diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry. Azo dyes and
their uses. Cyanides and Isocyanides.

XXXII.  POLYMERS  &  BIOMOLECULES:

Classification  of  polymers.   Addition  and  condensation  polymerization.  Copolymerization.  Natural  rubber vulcanization of rubber, synthetic rubber – Neoprene and Buna- S. Molecular weights of polymers – Number average and weight average molecular
weights (definition only) Biopolymers – Carbohydrates and Proteins. Biodegradable polymers and some commercially important polymers – Polythene, nylon, polyesters and bakelite.  Carbohydrates:  Importance. Classification into (a) aldoses and ketoses and (b) mono (glucose and fructose), oligo (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen). Structure determination and properties of glucose. Structural features of oligo and polysaccharides mentioned above.  Proteins:  Elementary idea of Alpha amino acids, peptide bond,polypeptides and proteins. Primary, secondary,  tertiary  and  quaternary  structures  of  Proteins  (Qualitative  idea  only).  Denaturation  of  proteins;  enzymes.  Vitamins:  Classification  and functions of vitamins in biosystems.  Nucleic Acids:  Types of nucleic acids, primary building blocks of nucleic acids. Chemical composition of DNA &
RNA, Primary structure of DNA and its double helix.Replication. Transcription, protein synthesis and genetic code. Lipids:  Classification, structure and functions of lipids in biosystems.Hormones:  Classification, structural features and functions of hormones in biosystems.

XXXIII. CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE:

Uses of Chemicals in medicine: Analgesics(i) Narcotics: morphine, codeine. (ii) Non-narcotics : Aspirin, Ibuprofen.  Antipyretics: Analgin, phenacetin and paracetamol.  Tranquilizers: Barbituric acid, Luminal, seconal, valium.  Antiseptics:Chloroxylenol,
bithional;  Disinfectants :formalin.  Antimicrobials :  lysozyme,  lactic  acid,  hydrochloric  acid  in  stomach.  Antibiotics :  pencillin,  chloramphenicol, sulphadiazine.  Chemicals in food preservatives: sodium benzoate, potassium metabisulphite.  Artificial  sweetening agents:Aspartame, alitame, sucralose